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Zoology Optional Syllabus for UPSC Mains 2018
Zoology syllabus for UPSC Mains is divided in two papers.
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Paper – I: Zoology Syllabus
- Chordate and Non-Chordate: Starting with topic…
(a) Classification of various phyla and subclasses; Study of relationship: Protostomes and Deuterostomes, Acoelomate and Coelomate, Bilateria and Radiata; Parazoa, Status of Protista, Onychophora, Hemichordata and Symmetry.
(b) Protozoa: Locomotion, reproduction, nutrition, sex; Common features and life history of Monocystis, Paramecium, Leis mania and Plasmodium.
(c) Porifera: Skeleton, Reproduction and canal system.
(d) Platyhelminthes: Parasitic adaptation in Platyhelminthes, features and life history of Taenia, Fasciola and their pathogenic symptoms.
(e) Cnidaria: Polymorphism, coral reefs and formation; metagenesis; defensive structures with mechanism; common features and life history of Aurelia and Obelia.
(f) Nemathelminthes: General features, parasitic adaptation of Ascaris, Wuchereria and life history.
(g) Arthropoda: Larval forms and parasitism; Crustacea, vision and respiration in arthropods (Cockroach, Prawn, and scorpion); mouth parts in insects (mosquito, housefly, cockroach, honey bee and butterfly); metamorphosis in insect and hormonal regulation, Apis and termites and their social behaviour.
(h) Annelida: Modes of life in polychaetes; Coelom and metamerism; general features with life history of Earthworm, Nereis and Leach.
(i) Mollusca: Feeding, locomotion, respiration, general features and life history of Pila, Sepia, Lamellidens, torsion and detorsion in gastropods.
(j) Echinodermata: General features and life history of Asterias, Locomotion, Feeding, respiration, larval forms.
(K) Pisces: Respiration, locomotion and migration.
(l) Protochordata: Origin of chordates; life history and general features of Branchiostoma and Herdmania.
(m) Amphibia: Tetrapods, paedomorphosis, parental care.
(n) Reptilia: Origin of reptiles, status of Sphenodon and crocodiles, skull types.
(o) Aves: Origin of birds, igration and flight adaptation.
(p) Functional anatomy: Locomotory organs, endoskeleton, integument and its derivatives, respiratory system, digestive system, circulatory system, urino-genital system, heart and aortic arches, brain and sense organs i.e. eye and ear.
(q) Mammalia: Definition, origin, general features of various mammals like; pouched, egg laying, aquatic and primates, endocrine glands (thyroid, parathyroid, pituitary, adrenal, pancreas, gonads) and their interrelationships.
(a) Ecosystem structure and its function and types, ecological succession, ecological adaptation
(b) Ecosphere or Biosphere: Greenhouse effect and other human induced changes, ecological succession, Biogeochemical cycles, biomes, biomes and ecotones, community ecology.
(c) Population; population dynamics, characteristics, population stabilization.
(e) Wildlife of India.
(d) Biodiversity and diversity conservation of natural resources.
(f) Remote sensing for sustainable development.
(g) Environmental biodegradation,
(h) Impact of pollution on biosphere and measures for prevention.
(a) Behaviour: Sensory filtering, sign stimuli, responsive-ness, learning and memory, instinct, conditioning, habituation, imprinting.
(b) Role of hormones in drive; crypsis, predator detection, predator tactics, social organization in insects, social hierarchies in primates, role of pheromones in alarm spreading.
(c) Study of animal behaviour; sexual conflict, kinship selfishness and altruism.
(d) Homing, orientation, navigation, biological rhythms, biological clock, seasonal, tidal and circadian rhythms.
- Economic Zoology:
(a) Apiculture, lac culture, carp culture, sericulture, pearl culture, prawn culture, vermiculture.
(b) Infectious and communicable diseases (filaria, malaria, tuberculosis, cholera and AIDS) their pathogens, vectors and prevention.
(c) Livestock and Cattle diseases, vectors (ticks, mites, Tabanus, Stomoxys), Pathogen (helminthes).
(d) Pests of sugar cane (Pyrilla perpusiella), rice (Sitophilus oryzae) and oil seed (Achaea janata).
(e) Transgenic animals.
(f) Medical biotechnology, human genetic disease and genetic counselling, gene therapy.
(g) Forensic biotechnology.
- Application of Statistics- Biostatistics: Experiments designing; hypothesis and null hypothesis; regression , correlation, distribution and measure of central tendency, student-test, chi square, F-test (one-way & two-way Ftest).
- Instrumentation Methods:
(a) Spectrophotometer, fluorescence microscopy and phase contrast, radioactive tracer, gel electrophoresis, ultra centrifuge, PCR, FISH, ELISA and chromosome painting.
(b) Electron microscopy (TEM, SEM).
Paper – II: Zoology Syllabus
- Cell Biology:
(a) Cell Structure and function- organelles (plasma membrane, nucleus, mitochondria, Golgi bodies, ribosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, and lysosomes), cell division (mitosis and meiosis), mitotic spindle and mitotic apparatus, chromosome movements, chromosome type lambrush and polytene, organization of chromatin, Cell cycle regulation, heterochromatin.
(b) Nucleic acid topology, DNA motif, DNA replication, transcription, RNA processing, translation, protein folding and transport.
(a) Mendel’s laws of inheritance, recombination, linkage, multiple alleles, genetics of blood groups, pedigree analysis, hereditary diseases in man.
(b) Modern concept of gene, genetic regulation, split gene, genetic code.
(c) Sex determination in Drosophila and man, Sex chromosomes and their evolution,
(d) Mutations and mutagenesis.
(e) Cell death, Signal molecules, defects in signalling pathway and consequences.
(f) R-DNA or Recombinant DNA technology; cosmid, plasmid, artificial chromosomes as transgenic, vectors, DNA cloning and principles and methods of whole animal cloning.
(g) Gene regulation and expression in prokaryotes and eukaryotes.
(h) Application of RFLP in DNA finger printing, RFLP, AFLP and RAPD, ribozyme technologies, genomics and proteomics, human genome project.
(a) Theories of origin of life.
(b) Theories of evolution; Natural selection, role of mutations in evolution, evolutionary patterns, molecular drive, mimicry, variation, isolation and speciation.
(c) Evolution of elephant, horse and man using fossil data.
(d) Hardy-Weinberg Law.
(e) Continental drift and distribution of animals.
- Biological Systematics: International code, Zoological nomenclature, molecular taxonomy, cladistics and biodiversity.
(a) Role and Structure of carbohydrates, proteins and amino-acids, fats, fatty acids and cholesterolnucleic acids and Bioenergetics.
b) Kreb cycle, Glycolysis, oxidation and reduction, oxidative phosphorylation, energy conservation and release, cyclic AMP, ATP cycle, structure and role.
(c) Hormone classification (Peptide hormones and steroid), biosynthesis and functions.
(d) Enzymes: types and mechanisms of action.
(e) Immunoglobulin and immunity.
(f) Vitamins and co-enzymes
- Physiology (with special reference to mammals):
(a) Constituents and composition of blood; factors and mechanism of coagulation, blood groups and Rh factor in man, iron metabolism, , thermo-regulation, acid-based balan, ceanticoagulants.
(b) Digestion and absorption: Role of salivary glands, liver, pancreas and intestinal glands.
(c) Haemoglobin: Role, Composition and types oxygen and carbon dioxide.
(d) Excretion: Osmo-regulation and excretory product, nephron and regulation of urine formation.
(e) Neuron: Neurotransmitters, nerve impulse – its conduction and synaptic transmission.
(f) Types of Muscles: Mechanism of contraction of skeletal muscles, effects of exercise on muscles.
(g) Hearing, Vision and olfaction in man.
(h) Puberty and menopause in human. Physiology of reproduction,
- Developmental Biology:
(a)Process of Gametogenesis;
(b) Direct Interaction i.e. Cell-cell interaction, Genetic and induced teratogenesis, Cell lineage, paedogenesis and neoteny, role of thyroxine in amphibian, aging and cell death.
(c) Developmental genes in man, in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer, cloning.
(d) Stem cells: Types, Sources, and use in human welfare.
(e) Biogenetic law.
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