In all exams conducted by UPSC, minimum one question paper of general knowledge is being asked. Current Affairs are must part of these papers. This article gives basic facts about Uttar Pradesh (U.P.)


Introduction: U.P.

U.P.

Uttar Pradesh (UP) was previously known as United Provinces. It was created on 1st April 1937 as United Province which was renamed to as Uttar Pradesh in 1950. Uttar Pradesh( UP), a state in north India is very rich in culture and tradition. Since ancient and medieval times, it was home to powerful empires like Gupta, Pala, Magadha, Rashtrakuta, Maurya, Nanda, Sunga, Kushan and the Mughal empire. The two major rivers, the Ganga and the Yamuna, flow here. Various spiritual places like Varanasi, Allahabad, Kaushambi, Shravasti and Mathura has made UP, a religious tourist destination. Ayodhya, where Lord Rama ruled is also located within UP. Lord Krishna, who was born in Mathura and many places like Vrindavan which are associated with his life, are all in UP.


Surrounded by CountiesNepal
Surrounded by StatesBihar in the east, Madhya Pradesh in the south, Rajasthan, Delhi, Himachal Pradesh, and Haryana in the west, and Uttaranchal in the north
CapitalLucknow
Area2,43, 286 Sq Km.
Area Rank4th
Population Rank1st. in India
Official LanguagesHindi and Urdu.
Sex Ratioo912 females per 1000 male.
First Chief MinisterGovind Ballabh Pant
First GovernorSarojini Naidu
Literacy Rate69.72%

Culture of U.P.

Uttar Pradesh is a microcosm of the entire Indian nation in its diversity. Uttar Pradesh has absorbed culture and race from immigrants from its borders and created a unique cultural heritage i.e multi-ethnic, multi-religious and multicultural.The people of Uttar Pradesh is a mix of both the traditional and the modern. UP people are secular, liberal and progressive and at the same time, they are also deeply rooted in their social and religious traditions and taboos.


Festivals of U.P.

Most popular and vibrant festivals of Uttar Pradesh are Dipawali and Rama Navami. Other festivals also celebrated like Makar Sakranti, Janmashtami, Eid, Chhath Puja etc.


Climate of U.P.

Uttar Pradesh has to experience 3 types of seasons. These are Summer, Winter, and Monsoon. Max. temperature is 43°C and min. temperature is 4°C. The average annual rainfall is 120centimeter.


Few Famous Personalities From U.P.

• SURDAS, TULSIDAS, VALMIKI, KABIR, MUNSHI PREM CHAND, AKBAR ALLAHABAD, AMIR KHUSRO, HARIVANSH RAI BACHCHAN and many others — in the field of literature, poems and Sufi yana.

• Rani Lakshmibai, Mangal Pandey, Chandra Shekhar Azad and some others too hail from this historic state.

• Hamid Ansari, Current Vice-President of India ,Jawaharlal Nehru, first Prime Minister of India, Lal Bahadur Shastri, third Prime Minister, Indira Gandhi, fourth Prime Minister, Choudhary Charan Singh, fifth Prime Minister,Rajiv Gandhi, sixth prime minister Vishwanath Pratap Singh, eighth Prime Minister,Chandra Shekhar, ninth Prime Minister ,Atal Bihari Vajpayee eleventh Prime Minister of India


Crafts of U.P.

Chikankari Work, Zardozi, Carpet weaving, Marble craft, Stone carving, Metal Brassware, Pottery, Silk, Terracotta and clay sculptures and a lot enrich U.P.


Music of U.P.

Uttar Pradesh is famous for its Classical, Semi-classical and folk genres of music. The pinnacle of music was reached in the age of the King Harsh Vardhan and Guptas. the “Bharat Natya Shastra’ was written during this time. There were two distinct strands of music, one was the court musicians and the other was the devotional music founded by the Bhakti cult. Amir Khusro who wrote innumerable books on music and created a number of new ragas was from UP. He also discovered many musical instruments like the Sitar and the Tabla. Varanasi has one of the six great gharanas of tabla playing. Thumris, Ghazals, Qawwalis, Birhas and Khayals were also sung as poetries alongside musical compositions in various forms. Swami Haridas and his disciple Tansen are the pride of U.P.


Folk Music of U.P.

Folk music is sung on auspicious occasions like the birth of a child, marriage, and other special festivities.

Rasiya: It is a style of folk music in the Braj region of Vrindavan, Mathura and all the other regions associated with Lord Krishna. Rasiya songs are sung in the Brij Bhasha and are derived from the word ‘Rasa’ meaning emotion. The text of the Rasiya songs is generally songs of Radha and Krishna and his leelas.

Hori
Semiclassical songs are sung during the festival of Holi.

Phag
Seasonal songs are sung to celebrate agriculture and farming.

Chaiti
Semiclassical songs are sung in the month of Chait during the season of Shri Ram Navami.

Alha
These are ballad songs which narrate the heroic deeds of Alha and Udal two warrior brothers from the Bundelkhand region. The songs highlight morality, chivalry, and nobility.

Kajri
Folk songs are sung during the rainy season of the month of Bhadra.


Taj Mahal in U.P.

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Dr. SS

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