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UPSC Geography syllabus Optional


UPSC Mains  Geography Syllabus


PRINCIPLES OF GEOGRAPHY-PAPER – I

Physical Geography:

Geomorphology:

Factors controlling landform development; exogenetic and endogenetic forces; Origin and evolution of the earth’s crust; Fundamentals of geomagnetism; Geosynclines; Physical conditions of the earth’s interior; Continental drift; Plate tectonics ,Isostasy;  Recent views on mountain building; Vulcanicity; Earthquakes and Tsunamis; Denudation chronology; Channel morphology, Concepts of geomorphic cycles and Landscape development ;; Erosion surfaces; Slope development ;

Applied Geomorphology : Geohydrology, environment and economic geology.

Climatology:

Temperature and pressure belts of the world; Atmospheric circulation;Heat budget of the earth; atmospheric stability and instability. Planetary and local winds; Monsoons and jet streams; Temperate and tropical cyclones ,Air masses and frontogenesis, Types and distribution of precipitation; Weather and Climate; Koppen’s, Trewartha’s and Thornthwaite’s classification of world climates; Change in Global climatic and role and response of man in climatic changes, Hydrological cycle; Applied climatology and Urban climate.

Oceanography:

Bottom topography of the Indian, Atlantic and Pacific Oceans; Heat and salt budgets, Ocean deposits, Temperature and salinity of the oceans; Marine resources, Waves, currents and tides; biotic, mineral and energy resources; coral bleaching, Coral reefs, sea-level changes; law of the sea and marine pollution.

Biogeography:

Genesis of soils; Classification and distribution of soils; Soil erosion, Soil profile, Degradation, and conservation; Factors influencing world distribution of animals and plants; Problems of deforestation and conservation measures; agroforestry; Social forestry, Wild life; Major gene pool centres.

Environmental Geography:

Principle of ecology; Human ecological adaptations; Global and regional ecological changes and imbalances, Influence of man on ecology and environment, Ecosystem their management and conservation; Biodiversity and sustainable development; Environmental degradation, management, and conservation; Environmental policy; Environmental hazards and various remedial measures; Environmental education and  Environmental legislation.

Human Geography:

Perspectives in Human Geography: Areal differentiation; regional synthesis; Environmentalism; Dichotomy and dualism; Quantitative revolution and locational analysis; radical, behavioural, human and welfare approaches; religions and secularisation, Languages,; Cultural regions of the world; Human development index.

Economic Geography:

World economic development: Method of measurement and problems; World resources and their distribution; Energy crisis; World agriculture: agricultural inputs and productivity, typology of agricultural regions; Food and nutrition problems; Food security; famine: effects ,causes and remedies; World industries: patterns of world trade,locational patterns and problems;

Population and Settlement Geography:

Growth and distribution of world population; Causes and consequences of migration; demographic attributes,  concepts of over-under-and optimum population; Population theories, world population problems and policies, Population as social capital, Social well-being and quality of life;. Types and patterns of rural settlements; Hierarchy of urban settlements, Environmental issues in rural settlements; Urban morphology:

Concepts of primate city and rank-size rule; Sphere of urban influence;  Functional classification of towns; Satellite towns, Rural – urban fringe; Sustainable development of cities, Problems and remedies of urbanisation.

Regional Planning:

Concept of a reg; Regional imbalances, centresTypes of regions and methods of regionalisation; centres and growth poles; regional development strategies; Planning for sustainable development, environmental issues in regional planning;

Models, Theories and Laws in Human Geography:

Systems analysis in Human geography; Marxian ,Malthusian and demographic transition models; Central Place theories of Christaller and Boudeville and Losch;Perroux.; Von Thunen’s model of agricultural location; Ostov’s model of stages of growth, Weber’s model of industrial location; Heartland and Rimland theories; Laws of international boundaries and frontiers.


 UPSC Mains Geography  Syllabus

PAPER – II-GEOGRAPHY OF INDIA


  1. Physical Setting:

Space relationship of India with its neighboring countries;  Structure and relief; Physiographic regions, Drainage system and watersheds; Indian monsoons and rainfall patterns, Tropical cyclones and western disturbances; Climatic regions; Floods and droughts Natural vegetation; Soil types and their distributions.

  1. Resources:

Land, surface and ground water, minerals, energy, biotic and marine resources; Forest and wild life resources and their conservation; Energy crisis.

  1. Agriculture:

Infrastructure: irrigation, seeds, fertilizers, Institutional factors, power: land holdings, land tenure and land reforms; Cropping pattern,  agricultural intensity, agricultural productivity, crop combination, Agro and social-forestry , land capability; Green revolution and its socio- economic and ecological implications; Significance of dry farming; aqua – culture; Livestock resources and white revolution; sericulture, apiculture and poultry; agricultural regionalisation; agro-climatic zones; agroecological regions.

  1. Industry:

Evolution of industries; Locational factors of cotton,  textile,jute, iron and steel, aluminium, fertilizer, paper, chemical and pharmaceutical, cottage and agro-based industries , automobile, Industrial houses and complexes including PSUs; Industrial regionali-sation; New industrial policies; Special Economic Zones, Multinationals and liberalization;; Tourism including eco – tourism.

  1. Transport, Communication and Trade:

Road, railway, airway ,waterway and pipeline networks and their complementary roles in regional development; Growing importance of ports on foreign and national trade; Trade Policy; Trade balance; Export processing zones; Developments in communication and information technology and their impacts on society and economy. Indian space programme.

  1. Cultural Setting:

Historical Perspective of Indian Society; linguistic racial and ethnic diversities; religious minorities; major tribes, tribal areas and their problems; cultural regions; Growth, density and distribution of population; Demographic attributes: sex-ratio, literacy rate, age structure, work-force, dependency ratio, longevity; migration (intra- regional , inter-regional and international) and associated problems; Health indicators ,Population problems and policies..

  1. Settlements:

Types, patterns and morphology of rural settlements; Urban developments; Functional classification of Indian cities, Morphology of Indian cities; Conurbations and metropolitan regions; urban sprawl; town planning; Slums and associated problems, Urbanization and its related problems and remedies.

  1. Regional Development and Planning:

Evaluation of regional planning in India; Integrated rural development programmes; Five Year Plans; Panchayati Raj and decentralised planning; Watershed management; Command area development; Planning for backward area, drought prone , desert, hill, tribal area development; multi-level planning; Development of island territories and Regional planning and

  1. Political Aspects:

Geographical basis of Indian federalism; State reorganisation; Regional consciousness and inter state issues; Emergence of new states; international boundary of India and related issues; India’s role in world affairs; Cross border terrorism; Geopolitics of South Asia and Indian Ocean realm.

  1. Contemporary Issues:

Ecological issues: Environmental hazards: landslides, Tsunamis,earthquakes, floods and droughts, epidemics; Issues relating to environmental pollution; Changes in patterns of land use; Principles of  environmental management and environmental impact assessment; Population explosion and food security; Environmental degradation; Problems of agrarian and industrial unrest, Deforestation, desertification and soil erosion;; Regional disparities in economic development; Concept of sustainable growth and development; Linkage of rivers, Environmental awareness; Globalisation and Indian economy.


NOTE: One compulsory question of Map will be asked .


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