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Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Science Paper-I
- Animal Nutrition-
Food Energy and its patitioning within animal. Energy & its sources, metabolism, requirements for maintenance and production of meat, protein milk, eggs and wool. Feeds as sources of energy and its evaluation.
1.1. Trends in protein nutrition: sources of protein metabolism and its synthesis, availability of protein quantity and quality in relation to requirements. protein and its ratios in ration. NPN compound.
1.2.Major and Trace minerals: Minerals in animal diet : Sources, requirements, functions and their relationship .Basic minerals nutrients including trace elements. Fed solubal and water solubal vitamins.
1.3. Vitamins, Hormones and Growth Stimulating, substances : Functions, sources, requirements and interrelationship with minerals.Feed Aditives.
1.4. Advances in Ruminant Nutrition-Dairy Cattle: Nutrients and study of their metabolism with reference to milk production and its composition. Nutrient requirements for heifers, calves, dry and milking cows and buffaloes. Limitations of different feeding systems. Swine Nutrition and Paultry Nutrition.
1.5 Advances in Non-Ruminant Nutrition-Poultry-Nutrients and their metabolism with reference to meat , poultry and egg production, Feed formulation, Nutrients requirements and broilers at different ages.
1.6 Advances in Non-Ruminant Nutrition-Swine-Nutrients and their metabolism with special reference to quality and growth of meat production, Feed formulation and Nutrient requirement for baby-growing and finishing pigs
1.7. Advances in Applied Animal Nutrition-A critical analysis , review and evaluation of digestibility , feeding experiments and balance studies. Study ofFeeding standards and measures of food energy. Nutrition requirements for maintenance , growth and production. Balanced rations.
1.8 Conservation of Fodder:Feed Technology.Digestibility trials.
- Animal Physiology :
2.1 Growth and Animal Production : Study of Prenatal and postnatal growth, growth curves, measures of growth, maturation, factors affecting growth, conformation, body composition, meat quality.Blood Constituents, Circulation, Respiration.Excretion,
Blood Constituents, Circulation, Respiration.Excretion, Endrocrine glands.
2.2 Milk Production and Reproduction and Digestion : Current status of hormonal control of mammary development, milk ejection and milk secretion . Female and Male reproduction organ, their components and function. Digestive organs and their functions.
2.3 Environmental Physiology : Physiological relations and their regulation; mechanisms of adaptation, regulatory mechanism and environmental factors affecting animal behaviour, ways of controlling climatic stress.
2.4 Semen quality : Preservation and concept of Artificial Insemination-All Components of semen, chemical and physical properties of ejaculated semen, composition of spermatozoa, factors affecting semen in vitro and in vivo. Factors affecting semen production and quality preservation, composition of diluents, transport of diluted semen, sperm concentration. Deep Freezing techniques in cows, swine and poultry, sheep and goats. Detection of estrus and time of insemination for better conception.
- Livestock Production and Management :
3.1 Commercial Dairy Farming-
Comparison of dairy farming in India with developed countries. Dairying under fixed farming and as a specialised farming, Starting of a dairy farm, economic dairy farming. Land and Capital requirement, organisation of the dairy farm. Procurement of goods; factors determining the efficiency of dairy animal, opportunities in dairy farming, , Herd recording, cost of milk production; pricing policy; budgeting, Personnel Management. Developing Practical and Economic ration for dairy cattle; field and fodder requirements of Dairy Farm, supply of greens throughout the year Feeding regimes for day and young stock and bulls, heifers animals and breeding animals, new trends in feeding young and adult stock; Maintaining Feeding Records.
3.2 Commercial meat, egg and wool production: Development of practical and economic rations for sheep, goats, rabbits, pigs and poultry. Supply of greens, fodder, feeding regimens for young and mature stock. New trends in increasing production and management. Capital and land requirements and socioe-conomic concept.
3.3 Feeding and management of animals under flood, drought and other natural calamities.
- Genetics and Animal Breeding : Study of Meiosis and Mitosis ; Mendelian inheritance; deviations to Mendelian genetics; Expression of genes; Linkage and crossing over; sex influenced and sex limited characters, Sex determination; Chromosome aberrations; Blood groups and polymorphism; Gene and its structure; DNA as a genetic material; Genetic code and protein synthesis; Recombinant DNA technology, Mutations & types of mutations, methods for detecting mutations and calculation of mutation rate.
4.1 Population Genetics Applied to Animal Breeding: Qualitative Vs Quantitative traits; Hardy Weinberg Law; Individual Vs Population ; Gene and genotypic frequency; Forces affecting gene frequency; Random drift and small populations; Inbreeding ,Theory of path ;methods of estimating inbreeding coefficient, systems of inbreeding; Breeding value, Effective population size; estimation of breeding value, dominance and epistatic deviation; partitioning of variation; Genotype X environment correlation and genotype X environment interaction; Resemblance between relatives.
The role of multiple measurements.
4.2 Breeding Systems: Heritability, repeatability and genetic and phenotypic correlations, their methods of character. estimation and precision of estimates; Aids to selection and their relative merits; pedigree,Individual, family and within family selection; Progeny testing; Construction of selection indices and their uses ,Methods of selection; Comparative evaluation of genetic gains through various selection methods; Indirect selection and Correlated response; Inbreeding, upgrading, cross-breeding and synthesis of brees; Selection for general and specific combining ability ,Crossing of inbred lines for commercial production; Breeding for threshold.
Extentions: Concept, scope and phylosophy. Technology Transfer. Animal Husbandry Programmes.
UPSC Paper II syllabus for Animal Husbandry
- Anatomy ,Farmacology and Hygiene
1.1. Histology and Histological Techniques : Stains and Chemical classification of stains used in biological work-principles of staining tissues-mordants- regressive & progressive stains-differential staining of cytoplasmic and connective tissue elements-Methods of processing & preparation of tissues-celloidin embedding-Freezing microtomy-Microscopy-Bright field microscope and electron microscope. Cytology structure of cell, organcells & inclusions; cell division and cell types-Tissues and their classification-adult and embryonic tissues-Comparative histology of organs: – vascular, Nervous, respiratory, digestive, musculoskeletal and urogenital systems-Endocrine glands-Integuments-sense organs.
1.2. Embryology : Embryology of vertebrates with special reference to aves and domestic mammals game to genesis-fertilization-germ layers-foetal membranes, types of placenta in domestic mammals-Teratology-twin & twinning-organogenesis-germ layer derivatives- mesodermal , endodermal and ectodermal derivatives.
1.3 Bovine Anatomy-Regional Anatomy: surface anatomy of salivary glands, Paranasal sinuses of OX-. Regional anatomy of infraorbital, maxillary, Regional anatomy of para-vertebral nerves, mandibula alveolar, mental & coronal nerve block-, pudental nerve, median, ulnar & radial nerves-tibial, fibular and digital nerves-Cranial nerves- superficial lymph nodes ,structures involved in epidural anaesthesia-, abdominal and pelvic cavity,surface anatomy of visceral organs of thoracic, s-comparative study of locomotor apparatus & their application in the biomechanics of mammalian body.
1.4 Anatomy of Fowl : Skeletal system. Study of functional anatomy in relation to respiration and digestion, flying and egg production.
1.5 Physiology of blood and its circulation, excretion, respiration, Endocrine glands in health and disease.
1.5.1 Blood constituents : Properties and functions of blood, blood cell formation-Haemoglobin synthesis and chemistry. Study of plasma proteins production, classification and properties; coagulation of blood; disorders-anticoagulants- blood groups, Blood volume , Plasma expanders-Buffer systems in blood. Biochemical tests and their importance in disease diagnosis.
1.5.2. Circulation: Physiology of heart, cardiac cycle- heartbeat, heart sounds, electro-cardiograms, Work and efficiency of heart. Study of effect of ions on heart function-metabolism of cardiac muscle, nervous and chemical regulation of heart, effect of temperature and stress on heart, blood pressure and hypertension, arterial pulse, Osmotic regulation, vasomotor regulation of circulation, shock. Coronary & pulmonary circulation, -Cerebrospinal fluid-circulation in birds, Blood-Brain barrier.
1.5.3 Respiration : Mechanism of respiration, Transport and exchange of gases, chemo receptors-hypoxia-respiration in birds, neural control of respiration.
1.5.4 Excretion: Structure and function of kidney, formation of urine, various methods of studying renal function renal regulation of acid-base balance; Urinary recreation in chicken-Sweat glands and their function, about physiological constituents of urine-renal failure-passive venous congestions. Biochemical tests for urinary dysfunction.
1.5.5 Endocrine glands: Functional disorders, Study of their symptoms and diagnosis. Synthesis of hormones, mechanism and control of secretion-hormonal receptors and their classification and function.
1.6. General knowledge of pharmacology and therapeutics of drugs : Cellular level of pharma co dynamics and pharmaco-kinetics- electrolyte balance-drugs acting on Autonomic nervous system Drugs acting on fluids and -Modern concepts of anaesthesia and dissociative Anaesthetics- Antimicrobials ,Autocoids- and principles of chemotherapy in microbial injections-use of hormones in therapeutics, chemotherapy of Neoplastic diseases,chemotherapy of parasitic infections, Drug and economic persons in the Edible tissues of animals.
1.7. Veterinary Hygiene with reference to air,water and habitation : Assessment of pollution of water, air and soil-Importance of climate in animal health-effect of environment on animal function and performance-relationship between animal agriculture and industrialization -animal housing requirements for specific categories of domestic animals viz. , milking cows, pregnant cows & sowsbroiler birds-stress, strain & productivity in relation to animal habitation.
- Animal Diseases :
2.1 Pathogenesis and symptoms, postmortem lesions, diagnosis, and control of infection diseases of pig, cattle and poultry, horses, sheep and goats.
2.2 Etiology and symptoms, diagnosis, treatment of production diseases of pig, cattle and poultry.
2.3 Deficiency diseases of domestic animals and birds.
2.4 Diagnosis and treatment of nonspecific condition like impaction, Indigestion, Bloat, Diarrhoea, dehydration, stroke, poisoning.
2.5 Diagnosis and treatment of neurological disorders.
2.6 Principles and methods of immunization of animals against specific diseases: Concept of hard immunity, Identification of disease free zones-Concept of ‘zero’ disease, chemoprophylaxis.
2.7 Anesthesia-local, regional and general-pre-anesthetic medication, Symptoms and surgical interference in fractures and dislocation, choking, Hernia, abomassal displacement-Caesarian operations, RumenotomyCastrations.
2.8 Disease investigation techniques-Materials for laboratory investigation-Establishment Animal Health Centres and Disease free zone.
- Veterinary Public Health
3.1 Zoonoses: Definition and Classification, role of birds and animals in prevalence and transmission of zoonotic diseases occupational zoonotic diseases.
3.2. Epidemiology : Definition and Principles of epidemiological terms, application of epidemiological measures in the field of study of diseases and disease control, Epidemiological features of water, air and food borne infections.
3.3 Veterinary Jurisprudence : Rules for making improvement of animal quality and prevention of animal diseases, S.P. C.A. veterolegal cases, Rules for prevention of animal and animal product borne diseases, certificates-Materials and various methods of collection of samples for veterolegal investigation.
- Milk and Milk Products related Technology :
4.1 Milk Technology : Study of Organization of rural milk procurement, collection and transport of raw milk. Quality testing and grading of raw milk, Quality storage. Grades of, Skimmed milk, whole milk and cream. Processing, packaging, storing, , marketing, distributing defects and their control and nutritive properties of the following milks : standardized, Pasteurized, toned, double toned, sterilized, reconstituted, homogenized, recombined and flavoured milks. Preparation of cultured milks, cultures and their management, Lassi,youghurt, Dahi, and Srikhand. Preparation of flavoured and sterlized milks. Legal standards, Sanitation requirement for safe and clean milk and for the milk plant equipment.
4.2 Milk Products Technology : Selection of raw materials, production, assembling, processing, storing, distributing and marketing milk products such as Butter, Ghee, Khoa, Channa, Cheese; Condensed, evaporated, baby food and dried milk, Ice cream and Kulfi; by products; whey products, butter milk, lactose and casein. Testing Grading, judging milk products- Agmark and BIS specifications, legal standards, quality control nutritive properties. , Processing, Packaging and operational control Costs.
- Meat Hygiene and Technology :
5.1 Meat Hygiene :
5.1.1 Ante mortem care and management of food animals, stunning, slaughter, and dressing operations; abattoir requirements and designs; Meat inspection procedures and judgement of carcass meat cuts-drading of carcass meat cuts-functions and duties of Veterinarians in Wholesome meat production.
5.1.2 Hygienic methods of handling production of meat: Study of spoilage of meat and control measures-Post slaughter physicochemical changes in meat and factors that influence them-quality improvement methods, Adulteration of meat and defection, Existed regulatory provisions for Meat trade and Industry.
5.2. Meat Technology
5.2.1 Chemical and Physical l characteristics of meat-meat emulsions-methods of preservation of meat-curing, canning, irradiation, meat packaging and meat products; meat products and formulations.
5.3. Byproducts : Slaughter house by products and their utilisation, Inedible and Edible byproducts-social and economic implications of proper utilisation of slaughter house byproducts-Study of Organ products for food and pharmaceuticals.
5.4. Poultry Products Technology : Chemical composition and nutritive value of poultry meat, Management and pre slaughter care. Techniques of Slaughtering, inspection, preservation of poultry meat, and products. Legal and BIS standards. Composition and Structure and nutritive value of eggs. Preservation and maintenance. Microbial spoilage. Marketing of poultry eggs, meat, and products.
5.5. Rabbit/Fur Animal farming : Care and management of rabbit meat production. Disposal and utilization of wool and fur and recycling of waste byproducts. Grading of wool.
- Extension: Basic philosophy, concept, objectives and principles of extension. Different Methods for educating farmers under rural conditions. Generation of technology and its transfer and feedback. Problems of constraints in the transfer of technology. Animal husbandry programmes for the development of rural area.
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