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UPSC Mains Syllabus of Sociology Optional
PAPER – I
FUNDAMENTALS OF SOCIOLOGY
Sociology – The Discipline:
Social changes and Modern thoughts in Europe and emergence of sociology.
Scope and comparison with other social sciences.
Sociology and relevance of common sense.
Sociology as Science:
Science and its elements, scientific method and critique.
Research Methodology and its major theoretical strands.
Positivism and its criticism.
Non- positivist methodologies
Fact value and objectivity.
- Research Methods and Analysis:
Quantitative and Qualitative methods.
Data Collection and its techniques.
Variables, sampling and types, hypothesis, reliability and validity.
Karl Marx- Historical materialism, class struggle, mode of production, alienation
Emile Durkheim- social fact, Division of labour, suicide, religion and society.
Max Weber, ideal types, TalcoltSocial action, authority, bureaucracy, protestant ethic and the spirit of capitTalcott
Parsons- pattern variables, Social system.
Robert K. Merton- Latent and manifest functions, reference groups, conformity and deviance.
Mead – Self and identity.
- Stratification and Mobility:
Concepts- hierarchy, equality, inequality, exclusion, poverty and deprivation.
Study of Theories related to social stratification- Structural functionalist theory, Weberian theory, Marxist theory,
Dimensions – Status groups, Social stratification of class, gender, ethnicity and race.
Social mobility- open and closed systems, types of mobility, sources and causes of mobility.
- Works and Economic Life:
Social organisation of work in different types of society-, feudal society, organisation, slave society, industrial /capitalist society.
Formal organisation of work.
Labour and society.
- Politics and Society:
Power and Sociological theories.
Power elite, pressure groups ,bureaucracy, and political parties.
Nation, state, democracy, citizenship, civil society, ideology.
Social movements, Protest, agitation, collective action, revolution.
- Religion and Society:
The concept of Religion and Sociological theories.
Types of religious practices: animism, pluralism, monism, sects, cults.
Religion in modern society: religion and science, religious revivalism, secularization, fundamentalism.
- Systems of Kinship:
Marriage, impact andFamily, household.
Types and various forms of family.
The concept of Lineage and descent.
Patriarcimpact and sexual division of labour.
- Social Change in Modern Society:
Social Change and Sociological theories .
Development and dependency.
Education and social change.
Agents of social change.
Science, technology and role in social change.
Second Paper of UPSC Mains Syllabus of Sociology
INDIAN SOCIETY: STRUCTURE AND CHANGE
- Indian Society and its Introduction:
(i) Aspects of the study of Indian society:
Structural functionalism (M N Srinivas).
Indology (GS. Ghurye).
Marxist sociology (AR Desai).
(ii) An impact of colonial rule on Indian society:
Social background of Indian nationalism.
Protests and movements during the colonial period.
Modernization of Indian tradition.
- Social Structure:
(i) Rural and Agrarian Social Structure:
Agrarian social structure – the evolution of land tenure system, land reforms.
The idea of an Indian village and village studies.
(ii) Caste System:
Perspectives on the study of caste systems: M N Srinivas , G S Ghurye, Louis Dumont, Andre Beteille.
Caste System and its features .
Untouchability – its forms and perspectives.
(iii) Tribal communities in India:
Colonial policies and tribes.
Issues of integration and autonomy.
(iv) Social Classes in India:
Industrial class structure.
Agrarian class structure.
Middle classes in India.
(v) Systems of Kinship in India:
Lineage and descent in India.
Types of kinship systems.
Family and marriage in India.
Household dimensions of the family.
(vi) Religion and Society:
Problems of religious minorities.
Religious communities in India.
- Social Changes in India:
(i) Visions of Social Change in India:
Idea of development planning and mixed economy.
Education and social change.
Constitution, law and social change.
(ii) Rural and Agrarian transformation in India:
Programmes of rural development, cooperatives, poverty alleviation schemes.
Community Development Programme.
Green revolution and impact on social change.
Changing modes of production in Indian agriculture .
Problems of bondage ,rural labour,migration.
(iii) Industrialization and Urbanisation in India:
Growth of urban settlements in India.
Evolution of modern industry in India.
Working class: structure, growth, class mobilization.
Slums and deprivation in urban areas.
Informal sector, child labour.
(iv) Politics and Society:
Nation, democracy and citizenship.
Regionalism and decentralization of power.
Political parties, pressure groups , social and political elite.
(v) Social Movements in Modern India:
Peasants and farmers movements.
Backward classes & Dalit movement.
Ethnicity and Identity movements.
(vi) Population Dynamics:
Population size, growth, composition and distribution.
Population policy and family planning.
Components of population growth: birth, death, migration.
Emerging issues: ageing, sex ratios, child and infant mortality, reproductive health.
(vii) Challenges of Social Transformation:
Crisis of development: environmental problems and sustainability, displacement,.
Poverty, deprivation and inequalities.
Violence against women.
Ethnic conflicts, religious revivalism, communalism,
Illiteracy and disparities in education.
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