Here, in this post, you will find syllabus of ‘Agriculture’ which is one optional subject of UPSC Mains Examination. This blog will help you to get other details also.To get complete information, you can check given links.
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Agriculture : Syllabus of UPSC Mains
Ecology and its importance, sustainable management and conservation of natural resources. Social and Physical environment as factors of crop production and distribution. Agro-Ecology. Climate Change. Green House Effect and Global Warming.Eco System Analysis Tools.
Climatic elements and crop growth, impact of changing environment on cropping pattern and indicators of environments. Environmental pollution and related hazards to crops, animals, and humans. Cropping pattern in various agro-climatic zones of the country. Impact of high-yielding and short-duration varieties on shifts in cropping pattern.
Concepts of multi-storey, multiple cropping, relay and intercropping, and their importance in food production. Aspects of practices for production of important cereals, oil seeds pulses, fibres, sugar, and fodder and commercial crops are grown during Kharif and Rabi seasons in different regions of the country.
Forestry plantations and its types, Important features, scope and propagation. Concept of extension, agro-forestry, social forestry, and natural forests.
Weeds and their characteristics, dissemination and association of weeds with various crops; their multiplication; biological, cultural, and chemical control of weeds.
Processes and factors of soil formation.Soil and its physical, chemical and biological properties. Modern classification of Indian soils, organic & Mineral constituents of soils and their role in maintaining soil productivity. Essential plant nutrients and beneficial elements in soils and plants. Concept & principles of soil fertility and its evaluation for judicious fertiliser use.Integrated nutrient management. Losses of nitrogen in the soil, a concept of nitrogen fixation in soils, potassium and study of nitrogen-use efficiency in submerged rice soil potassium and phosphorus in soils and their efficient use. Problem soils and their reclamation methods.
Soil conservation planning and watershed basis. Erosion and run-off management in foot hills, hilly and valley lands; processes and factors affecting them.
Concept of Dry land agriculture and its problems. Technology of stabilising agriculture production in rain fed agriculture area. Water-use efficiency in relation to crop production, parameters of scheduling irrigations, ways and methods of reducing run-off losses of irrigation water. Drip and sprinkler irrigation. Drainage of water-logged soils, quality of irrigation water, effect of industrial effluents on soil and water pollution. Study of Irrigation Projects in India.
Farm management and its scope, characteristics and importance.Farm planning. Optimum utilisation of resources and budgeting. Different types of farming systems & their Economics. Pricing and Marketing of agricultural inputs and outputs, price fluctuations and their cost. Crop Insurance. Agricultural Price Policy.
Role of cooperatives in agricultural economy; types and various systems of farming and factors affecting them. Agricultural extension and its role & importance.Extension programmes & methods of evaluation, socioeconomic survey, concept and status of big, small, and marginal farmers.Landless agricultural labourers. Krishi Vigyan Kandra. NGO and rural development
Farm mechanisation and its role in agricultural production and rural employment. Training programmes for extension workers, the study of lab-to-land programmes.
Agriculture Syllabus for UPSC Mains-PAPER-II
Cell Theory, the concept of cell structure, cell division, cell organelles and their function, nucleic acids-structure and function, gene structure and function.
Laws of heredity and their significance in plant breeding. Chromosomal aberrations, Chromosome structure, linkage and cross-over, and their significance in recombination breeding. Polyploidy, euploid and an euploids. Mutation-macro and micro and their role in crop improvement. Variation and its components.
Heritability, sterility and incompatibility, its classification and their application in crop improvement. Cytoplasmic inheritance, sex influenced ,s ex-linked and sex-limited characters. History of plant breeding. Modes of reproduction, crossing and selfing techniques.
Origin and evolution of crop plants, law of homologous series ,c entre of origin, crop genetic resources-conservation and utilization.
Application of principles of plant breeding for the improvement of major field crops. Pure-line selection, mass and recurrent selections, pedigree, combining ability, its significance in plant breeding.
Hybrid vigour and its exploitation, breeding for disease and pest resistance, backcross method of breeding,r ole of interspecific and inter-generic hybridization. Role of biotechnology in plant breeding. Genetic Engineering and its role.
Improved varieties, hybrids and composites of various crop plants. Seed technology & its importance. Various kinds of seeds and their seed production and processing techniques. Role of private and public sectors in seed production, processing and marketing in India.
Seed Production:DNA finger prints: Intellectural Propert Rights. WTO
Physiology and its significance in agriculture. Imbibitions, diffusion, osmosis and surface tension. Absorption and translocation of water, transpiration and water economy.
Enzymes and plant pigments; photosynthesis and its modern concepts and study of factors affecting the process, aerobic and non-aerobic respiration; C, C and CAM mechanisms.
Carbohydrate, protein and fat metabolism. Growth and development of photo-periodism and vernalization. Hormones, Auxins, and other plant regulators and study of their mechanism of action and importance in agriculture.
Physiology of seed germination and development. Dormancy. Climatic requirements and cultivation of major plants, fruits , vegetable crops and flower plants; the package of practices and their scientific basis. Marketing and Handling problems of fruit and vegetables.Methods of preservation of important fruits and vegetable products,equipments and processing techniques. Role of vegetables and fruits in human nutrition.
Growing ornamental plants.Design and layout of lawns and gardens. Diseases and pests of orchard, field vegetables and plantation crops of India. Causes and ways of classification of plant pests and diseases. Study of Principles of control of plant pests and diseases .Biological control of pests and diseases. Integrated disease and pest management. Epidemiology and its forecasting. Pesticides, its formulations and modes of action. Compatibility with rhizobial inoculants. Microbial toxins. Diseases of cereals and pulses and Storage pests, and their control. Food production and consumption trends in India. International and national food policies. Procurement, Production, distribution and processing constraints. Relation of food production with
Food production and consumption trends in India. International and national food policies. Procurement, Production, distribution and processing constraints. Relation of food production with national dietary pattern, major deficiencies of protein and calorie. Vision 2020, Food Grain Productivity and Food Security.
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