It’s your right decision to appear in UPSC Examination with a dream to become an IAS officer. In this article, you will get complete syllabus of Commerce for UPSC Mains.

Here, in this post, you will find syllabus of  ‘Commerce ‘ which is one optional subject of UPSC Mains Examination. To appear in UPSC Civil Services Mains exam, you need to have complete awareness about  UPSC Mains Syllabus and exam pattern.  To get complete information, you can check given links.


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commerce syllabus for UPSC mains

Commerce Syllabus for UPSC Mains Exam

PAPER – I

Syllabus-Accounting and Finance Accounting, Taxation & Auditing

  1. Financial Accounting: Study of Accounting as a Financial Information System; Impact of Behavioural Sciences on accounting. Accounting Standards e.g., Accounting for Depreciation, Inventories, Long-term Construction Contracts, Research and Development Costs, Revenue Recognition, Contingencies, Fixed Assets, Foreign Exchange Transactions, Investments and Government Grants, Earnings Per Share, Cash Flow Statement. Accounting for Share Capital Transactions including Right Shares, Bonus Shares, Employees Stock Option and Buy- Back of Securities. Presentation and Preparation of Company Final Accounts. Absorption, Amalgamation and Reconstruction of Companies.
  2. Cost Accounting: Nature and Functions of Cost Accounting. Installation of Cost Accounting System. Cost Concepts related to, Profit Planning, Income Measurement, Cost Control and Decision Making. Methods of Costing: Process Costing, Job Costing, Activity Based Costing. Volume cost Profit Relationship as a tool of Profit Planning. Differential Costing as a Tool of Pricing Decisions, Incremental Analysis, Product Decisions, ShutDown Decisions, Make or Buy Decisions, etc. Techniques of Cost Control and Cost Reduction: Budgeting as a Tool for Planning and Control. Variance Analysis And Standard Costing. Responsibility Accounting and Divisional Performance Measurement.
  3. Taxation: Income Tax: Concept and Definitions; Basis of Charge; Incomes which do not form Part of Total Income. Simple problems of Computation of Income (of Individuals only) under Various Heads, i.e., Salaries, Profits and Gains from Business or Profession, Income from House Property, Capital Gains, Income of other Persons included in Asset, Income from other sources, Total Income. Deductions from Gross Total Income. Set – Off and Carry Forward of Loss.Salient Features/Provisions Related to VAT and Services Tax.
  4. Auditing: Company Audit: Audit related to Divisible Profits, Special investigations, Dividends, Tax audit. Audit of Insurance, Banking, Non-Profit Organisations and Charitable Societies /Trusts / Organisations.

Financial Management, Financial Institutions and Markets

  1. Financial Management: Finance Function: Nature, Objectives and Scope of Financial Management: Risk and Return Relationship. Tools of Financial Analysis: Funds-Flow and Cash-Flow Statement, Ratio Analysis. Capital Budgeting Decisions: Procedures, Process and Appraisal Methods. Risk and Uncertainty Analysis and Methods. Cost of capital: Introduction, Computation of Specific Costs of capital and Weighted Average Cost of Capital. CAPM as a Tool for Determining Cost of Equity Capital. Financing Decisions: Theories of Capital Structure, Net Operating Income (NOI) Approach, MM Approach, Net Income (NI) Approach and Traditional Approach. Designing of Capital structure: Types of Leverages: Operating, Financial and Combined, EBIT- EPS Analysis, and other Factors. Dividend Decisions and Methods of  Valuation of Firm:  MM Thesis, Walters Model, Gordon’s Model, Lintner Model. Factors Affecting Dividend Policy. Working Capital Management: Determinants of Working Capital. Planning of Working Capital. Components of Working Capital – Inventory, Cash and Receivables. Corporate Restructuring with a focus on Financial Aspects of Mergers and Acquisitions.
  2. Financial Markets and Institutions: Overview of Indian Financial System, Money Markets: Structure, Participants and Instruments. Commercial Banks. Reforms in the Banking sector. RBI as a Regulator. Monetary and Credit Policy of RBI.Capital Market: Primary and Secondary Market. Financial Market Instruments and Innovative Debt Instruments; Insurance and IRDA, Financial Services: Mutual Funds, Venture Capital, Credit Rating Agencies, SEBI as a Regulator.

PAPER – II of Commerce-Syllabus for UPSC Mains

Organisation Theory and OB, Human Resource Management and Industrial Relations

  1. Organisation Theory: Concept and Nature of Organisation; External Environment of Organisations – Political, Technological, Social, Economical and Legal; Organizational Goals – such as Primary and Secondary goals and Single and Multiple Goals; MBO-Management by Objectives. Study of Evolution of Organisation Theory: Neo-classical, Classical,  and Systems Approach. Modern Concepts of Organisation Theory: Organisational Structure and Organisational Culture. Organisational Design, Basic Challenges; Differentiation and Integration Process; Standardisation / Formalisation and Mutual Adjustment, Centralization and Decentralization Process. Mechanistic and Organic Structures, Coordinating Formal and Informal Organisations. Designing Organisational structures, Line and Staff Functions, Authority and Control; Specialisation and Coordination. Types of Organization Structure, Project Structure, Functional, Matrix Structure. Nature and Basis of Power, Power Structure and Politics, Sources of Power. Managing Organizational Culture,  Impact of Information Technology on Organizational Design and Structure.
  2. Organisation Behaviour: Meaning and Concept; Individual in organisations: Personality and its Theories and Determinants; Meaning and Process of Perception, Motivation: Concepts, Different Theories and Applications. Leadership-Styles and Theories. The quality of Work Life (QWL): Meaning and Ways of its Enhancement and impact of QWL on Performance. Quality Circles (QC) Meaning and  Importance. Management of Conflicts in Organisations. Transactional Analysis, Management of Change, Organizational Effectiveness.

Human Resources Management and Industrial Relations

  1. Human Resources Management (HRM): Meaning, Nature and Scope of HRM, HRP and its relevance ,Human Resource Planning, Job Analysis, Job Specification, Job Description, , Recruitment and Selection Process, Orientation and Placement, Training and Development Process, Performance Appraisal and new concepts of 360 Feed Back, Salary and Wage Administration, Job Evaluation, Employee Welfare, Transfers,Promotions and Separations.
  1. Industrial Relations (IR): Meaning, Scope, Nature and Importance of IR, Formation of Trade Unions, Trade Union Movement in India, Trade Union Legislation, Recognition of Trade Unions, Problems of Trade Unions in India. New Era and Impact of Liberalization on Trade Union Movement. Nature of Industrial Disputes: Causes of Disputes, Strikes and Lockouts, Prevention and Settlement of Disputes, Adjudicative bodies. Workers Participation in Management: Rationale, Philosophy, Present Day Status and Future Prospects.Concept of Collective Bargaining. Industrial Relations in Public Enterprises, Labour Turnover and  Absenteeism in Indian Industries and their Causes and Remedies.  ILO and its Functions and role.

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