UPSC IFS Mains Syllabus | Latest Indian Forest Service Syllabus pdf

Written by Dr. SS

Congratulations!  On your decision to appear in UPSC IFS Exam 2018. Indian Forest Service attracts candidates because of its different job profile. Get IFS syllabus for Mains as well as a link for IFS Prelims Syllabus here.We are here to help on every step and starting with the list of subjects along with UPSC syllabus for IFS Examination. The preliminary examination is same for the aspirants of both services IAS and IFS-Indian Forest Service.

In this article, we are covering two things.

First, each essential information about UPSC IFS Mains Exam 2018 and

Second, syllabus for aspirants of Indian Forest Service 2018 as given in latest notification.

Apply for IFS Prelims 2018Click here for UPSC Online
UPSC IFS Mains 2017 Result is out- Check Result

UPSC MAINS Indian forest service-IFS Syllabus

UPSC IFS-Indian Foreign Service Exam-Introduction

Indian Administrative Services  i.e  IAS Examination is one of the top three civil services, rest two are Indian Foreign Service and Indian Police Service. Popularly called  IAS exam is officially called the Civil Services Exam (CSE) which are conducted by UPSC.  IAS  works internally for the perfect functioning of law and order without any encumbrances.

UPSC IFSThe Indian Forest Service- IFS  is a Central Service in Group A and the premier service of India. To join IFS, you also need to appear in UPSC exam.The main task of this force is to carry out a successful implementation of the National Forest Policy, which is meant for protecting flora and fauna of the nation.

Along with this, the officer carries out welfare work for the forest dependent community. They are responsible for maintaining the overall integrity of nature and human.

In both the services i.e IAS/IFS, you get the opportunity to make positive changes in the life of millions and this makes UPSC  a unique choice.

However getting into IFS is not an easy task. Exam for IFS  is one of the toughest as well as prestigious examination. To get the opportunity to enjoy this prestigious designation, you need to go through the syllabus first. If you are appearing in IFS  exam 2018 first time, you should first have a copy of UPSC Exam syllabus.

Indian Foreign Service Exam 2018 Syllabus-Pattern & Subjects

UPSC has announced the date for IFS exam. UPSC exam for IFS is being conducted in three stages.

Stage-1 is common for both UPSC IAS and IFS.

Once a candidate get success in clearing stage -1 generally called preliminary examination, he would become eligible to appear in mains. For UPSC IFS Mains he can select any two subjects out of given list of optional subjects.

UPSC conducts Indian Forest Services exams in following three stages.

Stage-1  Preliminary Examination with multiple choice questions

Stage-2 Main Examination with Essay Type Questions.

Stage-3  Personality Test includes Face to face Interview.

Stage-1 of Indian Forest Service Exam

If you are applying for IFS you need to qualify the Civil Services Preliminary Examination for going to next stage of exam i.e IFS (Mains) Examination.

Check this link for UPSC syllabus of Preliminary Examination of UPSC 2018.

To prepare for UPSC IFS Prelims read article in given link.

Link to Apply UPSC online for Prelims registration.


Stage-2 of Indian Forest Service Exam

On the second stage of UPSC IFS exam, in-depth knowledge of candidate and his/her ability to present his/her views in a logical and sequential way will be evaluated.  This is not a test of your memory rather your analytical skill is being tested through conventional essay type questions.  The UPSC IFS mains exam will consist of six papers. First, two papers of General English and General Knowledge will be of 300 marks each and standard of these papers will be such as generally expected from a Science or Engineering graduate of reputed Indian University. All question papers will be asked in English Only and can be answered in English Only.

List of Papers of UPSC IFS Main Examination

Paper-1General English300
Paper-2General Knowledge300
Paper-3Optional Subject-1-Paper-1200
Paper-4Optional Subject-1Paper-2200
Paper-5Optional Subject-2 Paper-1200
Paper-6Optional Subject-2 Paper-1200

Stage-3 of Indian Forest Service Exam

An unbiased interview board who will be having your academic record in his hands will take your interview. Their object is to check your suitability as a person for the service. Get ready to face intelligence test along with your awareness test for your surroundings.

Interview Board will play a trick to assess you with a conversation which will flow in naturally but in a direction with a purpose. You will be observed on your initiative, tactfulness, balancing your judgement as well as for your leadership skill.

Indian Forest Service Mains Exam Syllabus of Optional Subjects-2018

The coverage of the syllabus for optional subject papers for UPSC IFS – the main examination is broad of the level of honors degree level which is considered higher than the bachelor’s degree but lower than the masters degree. But, for a candidate appearing in engineering subjects, the level will correspond to the bachelor’s degree.

UPSC –IFS Main -List of Optional Subjects.

Optional SubjectsCombinations which are not allowed
AgricultureAgriculture and ·Forestry
Agricultural EngineeringAgriculture and Animal Husbandry & Veterinary Science
Animal Husbandry & Veterinary ScienceAgriculture and Agricultural Engg
BotanyMathematics and Statistics
Chemistryand Chemical Engg.
Chemical EngineeringNot more than one subjects of the Engineering.
Civil Engineering
Mechanical Engineering

UPSC IFS-Mains Exam 2018 and General Information:

  1. Question papers will be of conventional (essay) type.
  2. All question papers will be asked in English Only and can be answered in English Only.
  3. This is not a test of your memory only. Practice presenting your opinion in a logical sequence.
  4. Practice answering each paper in allotted time i.e. within three hours.
  5. It’s pure paper and pen exam i.e. Candidates must write the papers in their own hand.

Candidates who get success in obtaining in minimum qualifying marks in the written part of the UPSC IFS Main Examination as may be fixed by the Commission at their discretion will face third and last stage i.e.  ‘personality test’ or ‘Interview’ round.

Detailed Indian Forest Services Exam Syllabus for Mains 2018

For your convenience, we are giving detailed syllabus of UPSC optional subjects for Indian Forest Services Mains.

To have a look on UPSC detailed syllabus of given papers, scroll down. 

AgricultureAnimal Husbandry & Veterinary Science
Agricultural EngineeringForestry


UPSC IFS Syllabus 2018 for AGRICULTURE Optional


Ecology and its importance,  sustainable management and conservation of natural resources. Social and Physical environment as factors of crop production and distribution.

Climatic elements and  crop growth, impact of changing environment on cropping pattern and indicators of environments. Environmental pollution and related  hazards to crops, animals, and humans.  Cropping pattern in various  agro-climatic zones of the country. Impact of high-yielding and short-duration varieties on shifts in cropping pattern.

Concepts of multi storey, multiple cropping, relay and intercropping, and their importance in food production. Aspects of practices for production of important cereals, oil seeds pulses, fibres, sugar, and fodder  and commercial crops grown during Kharif and Rabi seasons in different regions of the country.

Forestry plantations and its types, Important features, scope and propagation. Concept of extension, agro-forestry, social forestry, and natural forests.

Weeds and their characteristics, dissemination and association of weeds with various crops; their multiplication; biological, cultural, and chemical control of weeds.

Processes and factors of soil formation.Soil and its physical, chemical and biological properties. Modern classification of Indian soils, organic  & Mineral constituents of soils and their role in maintaining soil productivity.  Essential plant nutrients and  beneficial elements in soils and plants. Concept & principles of soil fertility and its evaluation for judicious fertilizer use.Integrated nutrient management. Losses of nitrogen in soil,concept of nitrogen fixation in soils ,study of nitrogen-use efficiency in submerged rice soils. Fixation of potassium  and phosphorus in soils and their efficient use. Problem soils and their reclamation methods.

Soil conservation planning and watershed basis. Erosion and run-off management in foothills, hilly and valley lands; processes and factors affecting them.

Concept of Dryland agriculture and its problems. Technology of stabilising agriculture production in the rain-fed agriculture area. Water-use efficiency in relation to crop production, parameters of scheduling irrigations, ways and methods of reducing run-off losses of irrigation water. Drip and sprinkler irrigation. Drainage of water-logged soils, quality of irrigation water, an effect of industrial effluents on soil and water pollution.

Farm management and its scope, characteristics and importance.Farm planning. Optimum utilisation of resources and budgeting. Different types of farming systems & their Economics.  Pricing and Marketing of agricultural inputs and outputs, price fluctuations and their cost.

Role of cooperatives in agricultural economy; types and various systems of farming and factors affecting them. Agricultural extension and  its role & importance.Extension programmes & methods of evaluation, socioeconomic survey, concept and status of big, small, and marginal farmers.Landless agricultural labourers.

Farm mechanisation and its role in agricultural production and rural employment.  Training programmes for extension workers, the study of lab-to-land programmes.


Cell Theory, the concept of cell structure, cell division, cell organelles and their function, nucleic acids-structure and function, gene structure and function.

Laws of heredity and their significance in plant breeding. Chromosomal aberrations, Chromosome structure, linkage and cross-over, and their significance in recombination breeding. Polyploidy, euploid and a euploid.  Mutation-macro and micro and their role in crop improvement. Variation and its components.

Heritability, sterility and incompatibility, its classification and their application in crop improvement. Cytoplasmic inheritance, sex influenced sex-linked and sex-limited characters. History of plant breeding.  Modes of reproduction, crossing and selfing techniques.

Origin and evolution of crop plants,  law of homologous series, centre of origin, crop genetic resources conservation and utilisation.

Application of principles of plant breeding for the improvement of major field crops. Pure-line selection, mass and recurrent selections, pedigree, combining ability, its significance in plant breeding.

Hybrid vigour and its exploitation, breeding for disease and pest resistance, backcross method of breeding, the role of interspecific and intergeneric hybridization. The role of biotechnology in plant breeding.

Improved varieties, hybrids and composites of various crop plants.  Seed technology &  its importance. Various kinds of seeds and their seed production and processing techniques. The role of private and public sectors in seed production, processing and marketing in India.

Physiology and its significance in agriculture. Imbibitions, diffusion, osmosis and surface tension. Absorption and translocation of water, transpiration and water economy.

Enzymes and plant pigments; photosynthesis and its modern concepts and study of factors affecting the process, aerobic and non-aerobic respiration; C, C and CAM mechanisms.

Carbohydrate, protein and fat metabolism. Growth and development of photoperiodism and vernalization. Hormones, Auxins, and other plant regulators and study of their mechanism of action and importance in agriculture.

Physiology of seed germination and development. Dormancy.  Climatic requirements and cultivation of major plants, equipment’s fruits, vegetable crops and flower plants; the package of practices and their scientific basis. Marketing and Handling problems of fruit and vegetables.Methods of preservation of important fruits and vegetable equipment and processing techniques. The role of vegetables and fruits in human nutrition.

Growing ornamental plants.Design and layout of lawns and gardens. Diseases and pests of orchard, field vegetables and plantation crops of India. Causes and ways of classification of plant pests and diseases. Study of Principles of control of plant pests and diseases .Biological control of pests and diseases. Integrated disease and pest management. Epidemiology and its forecasting. Pesticides, its formulations and modes of action. Compatibility with rhizobial inoculants. Microbial toxins. Diseases of cereals and pulses and Storage pests, and their control. Food production and consumption trends in India. International and national food policies. Procurement,Production, distribution and processing constraints. Relation of food production with national dietary pattern, major deficiencies of  protein and calorie.




  1. Water and Soil Conservation :

Scope of soil and water conservation. Mechanics ,types and causes of erosion . Rainfall and runoff. Sedimentation relationships and  measurement. Soil erosion & control measures – biological and engineering. Stream bank protection-vegetative barriers, contour trenches,  contour bunds, contour stone walls, contour ditches, outlets, terraces, and grassed waterways. Gully control structures –permanent and temporary. Design of permanent soil conservation structures like  chute, drop and drop inlet spillways. Design of percolation ponds and farm ponds .Principles of flood routing and flood control. Watershed Management and its investigation, planning and implementation .Selection of priority areas and watershed work plan. Water harvesting and moisture conservation. Land development and levelling.Estimation of earth volumes and costing. Wind Erosion process. Design for shelter belts and wind brakes and its  management. Study of Forest (Conservation) Act.

  1. Aerial Photography and Remote Sensing :

Characteristics of photographic images, interpretation keys, equipment used in interpretation, imagery interpretation used in  land use, geology, soil and forestry. Remote sensing .Concept of conventional and remote sensing approaches and their merits and demerits. Types of satellite images, fundamental concepts  of satellite image interpretation, techniques of digital and visual interpretations for soil, water and land use management. Use of GIS in planning and development of water resources ,watersheds, forests including forest cover, etc.

Section B

  1. Irrigation and Drainage:

Various Sources of water for irrigation. Planning and design of minor irrigation projects. Methods of measuring soil moisture – laboratory and in situ, Soil-water-plant relationships. Water requirement for crops. Planning of conjunctive use of surface and ground water. Measurement of irrigation water, measuring devices – weirs, orifices and flumes.

Methods of irrigation – surface,  fertigation, sprinkler and drip. Irrigation efficiencies and their estimation. Design and construction of canals, underground pipelines, field channels ,head-gates, diversion boxes and structures for road crossing. Occurrence of ground water, hydraulics of wells, all types of wells such as tube wells and open wells with their construction. Well development and testing. Pumps and their types, selection and installation of pumps. Rehabilitation of sick and failed wells. Drainage and causes of water logging , salt problem. Methods of drainage and  drainage of irrigated and unirrigated lands.Study of design of surface, sub-surface and vertical drainage systems. Improvement and utilization of poor quality water.  Reclamation of alkali and saline soils.  Economics of drainage systems and irrigation. Use of waste water management for irrigation – standards for  waste water for sustained irrigation, its feasibility and economics.

  1. Agricultural Structures:

Site selection. Design and construction of farmstead, farmhouse, cattle shed, dairy bam, hog housing, poultry shed, machinery and implement shed, storage structures for food grains, feed and forage. Construction and Design and of fences and farm roads. Structures for plant environment –poly houses , greenhouses and shade houses. Common building materials used in construction – brick , timber, stone, tiles, concrete etc and their properties. Study of Water supply, drainage and sanitation system.


Section A

  1. Farm Power and Machinery:

Concept of Agricultural mechanisation and scope. Sources of farm power – animate and Thermodynamics, electro-mechanical., construction and working of internal combustion engines.  Fuel, Thermodynamics, ignition, lubrication, cooling and governing system of IC engines.

Different types of tractors and power tillers. Power transmission, power take off (p.t.o.) , ground drive, and control systems. Maintenance and Operation of farm machinery for primary and secondary tillage. Traction theory. Sowing transplanting and intercultural implements and tools. Plant protection equipment – dusting and praying. Threshing, Harvesting and combining equipment. Machinery for earth moving. Land development & its methods and cost estimation.  Ergonomics of a man-machine system. Machinery for agroforestry & horticulture, feeds and forages. Haulage of agricultural and forest produce.

  1. Agro-energy :

Energy requirements for agricultural operations and agro-processing. Everything about selection, installation, maintenance and safety of electric motors for agricultural applications. Solar (thermal and photovoltaic), biogas and wind energy and their utilisation in agriculture.Classification of biomass for running IC engines and for electric power generation. Energy efficient cooking stoves and alternative cooking fuels.  Distribution of electricity for agro-industrial applications and agriculture.

Section B

  1. Agricultural Process Engineering:

Post harvest technology of crops and scope.  Engineering properties of agricultural produce as well as of by-products. Unit operations – clearing grading, densification, size reduction, concentration, drying/dehydration, evaporation,  freezing, filtration and packaging of agricultural produces and by-products. Material handling equipment screw and belt conveyors, bucket elevators, their capacity and power requirement. Processing of dairy and milk products – homogenization, cream separation,  sterilisation, pasteurisation , utilizationspray and roller drying, butter making, ice cream, cheese and shrikhand manufacture. Waste and utilisation – rice bran ,rice husk, sugarcane bagasse, plant residues and coir pith.

  1. Instrumentation and computer applications in Agricultural Engineering :

Electronic devices and their characteristics – amplifiers ,rectifiers, oscillators, multivibrators. Digital circuits – sequential and combinational system. Application of microprocessors in data acquisition and control of agricultural engineering processes- measurement systems for level,  strain, flow, force, torque, pressure, power, vacuum and temperature. Computers – introduction, input/output devices,  memory devices, central processing unit, operating systems, processors, keyboards and printers. Flowchart specification, Algorithms, programme translation and problem analysis in Agricultural Engineering. Multimedia and Audio-Visual aids.

UPSC IFS Syllabus 2018 of



  1. Animal Nutrition-

Energy & its sources,  metabolism,  requirements for maintenance and production of meat,milk,  eggs and wool. Feeds as sources of energy and its evaluation.

1.1. Trends in protein nutrition: sources of protein metabolism and its synthesis, availability of protein quantity and quality in relation to requirements. Energy protein and its ratios in ration.

1.2. Minerals in animal diet : Sources, requirements ,functions and their relationship .Basic minerals nutrients including trace elements

1.3. Vitamins, Hormones and Growth Stimulating, substances : Functions, sources, requirements and interrelationship with minerals.

1.4. Advances in Ruminant Nutrition-Dairy Cattle: Nutrients and study of their metabolism with reference to milk production and its composition. Nutrient requirements for heifers, calves, dry and milking cows and buffaloes. Limitations of different feeding systems.

1.5 Advances in Non-Ruminant Nutrition-Poultry-Nutrients and their metabolism with reference to meat, poultry and egg production, Feed formulation, Nutrients requirements and broilers at different ages.

1.6 Advances in Non-Ruminant Nutrition-Swine-Nutrients and their metabolism with special reference to quality and growth of meat production, analysis, Feed formulation and Nutrient requirement   for baby-growing and finishing pigs1.7. Advances in Applied Animal Nutrition-Analysis, review and evaluation of digestibility , feeding experiments and balance studies. Study ofFeeding standards and measures of food energy. Nutrition requirements for maintenance , growth and production. Balanced rations.

  1. Animal Physiology :

2.1 Growth and Animal Production : Study of Prenatal and postnatal growth, growth curves, measures of growth, maturation, factors affecting growth, conformation, body composition, meat quality.

2.2 Milk Production and Reproduction and Digestion : Current status of hormonal control of mammary development, milk ejection and milk secretion . Female and Male reproduction organ, their components and function. Digestive organs and their functions.

2.3 Environmental Physiology : Physiological relations and their regulation; mechanisms of adaptation, regulatory mechanism and environmental factors affecting animal behaviour, ways  of controlling climatic stress.

2.4 Semen quality : Preservation and concept of Artificial Insemination-All Components of semen, chemical and physical properties of ejaculated semen ,composition of spermatozoa, factors affecting semen in vitro and in vivo. Factors affecting semen production and quality preservation, composition of diluents, transport of diluted semen ,sperm concentration. Deep Freezing techniques in cows, swine and poultry, sheep and goats. Detection of estrus and time of insemination for better conception.

  1. Livestock Production and Management :

3.1 Commercial Dairy Farming-

Comparison of dairy farming in India with developed countries. Dairying under fixed farming and as a specialised farming, Starting of a dairy farm, economic dairy farming. Land and Capital requirement, organisation of the dairy farm. Procurement of goods; factors determining the efficiency of dairy animal, opportunities in dairy farming, , Herd recording, cost of milk production; pricing policy; budgeting, Personnel Management. Developing Practical and Economic ration for dairy cattle;field and fodder requirements of Dairy Farm, supply of greens throughout the year Feeding regimes for day and young stock and bulls, heifers animals and breeding animals, new trends in feeding young and adult stock; Maintaining Feeding Records.

3.2 Commercial meat, egg and wool production: Development of practical and economic rations for sheep, goats,  rabbits,pigs and poultry. Supply of greens, fodder, feeding regimens for young and mature stock. New trends in increasing production and management. Capital and land requirements and socioe-conomic concept.

3.3 Feeding and management of animals under flood ,drought and other natural calamities.

  1. Genetics and Animal Breeding : Study of Meiosis and Mitosis ; Mendelian inheritance; deviations to Mendelian genetics; Expression of genes; Linkage and crossing over; sex influenced and sex limited characters, Sex determination; Chromosome aberrations; Blood groups and polymorphism; Gene and its structure; DNA as a genetic material; Genetic code and protein synthesis; Recombinant DNA technology, Mutations & types of mutations, methods for detecting mutations and calculation of mutation rate.

4.1 Population Genetics Applied to Animal Breeding: Qualitative Vs Quantitative  traits; Hardy Weinberg Law; Individual Vs Population ; Gene and genotypic frequency; Forces affecting  gene frequency; Random drift and small populations; Inbreeding ,Theory of path ;methods of estimating inbreeding coefficient, systems of inbreeding; Breeding value,  Effective population size; estimation of breeding value, dominance and epistatic deviation; partitioning of variation; Genotype X environment correlation and genotype X environment interaction; Resemblance between relatives.

The role of multiple measurements.

4.2 Breeding Systems: Heritability, repeatability and genetic and phenotypic correlations, their methods of character. estimation and precision of estimates; Aids to selection and their relative merits; pedigree,Individual, family and within family selection; Progeny testing; Construction of selection indices and their uses ,Methods of selection;  Comparative evaluation of genetic gains through various selection methods; Indirect selection and Correlated response; Inbreeding, upgrading, cross-breeding and synthesis of brees; Selection for general and specific combining ability ,Crossing of inbred lines for commercial production; Breeding for threshold.

Paper II

  1. Health and Hygiene

1.1. Histology and Histological Techniques : Stains and Chemical classification of stains used in biological work-principles of staining tissues-mordants- regressive & progressive stains-differential staining of cytoplasmic and connective tissue elements-Methods of processing & preparation of tissues-celloidin embedding-Freezing microtomy-Microscopy-Bright field microscope and electron microscope. Cytology structure of cell, organcells & inclusions; cell division and cell types-Tissues and their classification-adult and embryonic  tissues-Comparative histology of organs:- vascular, Nervous, respiratory ,digestive, musculoskeletal and urogenital systems-Endocrine glands-Integuments-sense organs.

1.2. Embryology : Embryology of vertebrates with special reference to aves and domestic mammals game to genesis-fertilization-germ layers-foetal membranes ,types of placenta in domestic mammals-Teratology-twin & twinning-organogenesis-germ layer derivatives- mesodermal , endodermal  and ectodermal derivatives.

1.3 Bovine Anatomy-Regional Anatomy: surface anatomy of salivary glands ,Paranasal sinuses of OX-. Regional anatomy of infraorbital, maxillary, Regional anatomy of para-vertebral nerves, mandibula alveolar, mental & coronal nerve block-, pudental nerve, median, ulnar & radial nerves-tibial, fibular and digital nerves-Cranial nerves- superficial lymph nodes ,structures involved in epidural anaesthesia-, abdominal and pelvic cavity,surface anatomy of visceral organs of thoracic, s-comparative study of locomotor apparatus & their application in the biomechanics of mammalian body.

1.4 Anatomy of Fowl : Skeletal system. Study of functional anatomy in relation to respiration and digestion ,flying  and egg production.

1.5 Physiology of blood and its circulation, excretion, respiration, Endocrine glands in health and disease.

1.5.1 Blood constituents : Properties and functions of blood, blood cell formation-Haemoglobin synthesis and chemistry. Study of plasma proteins production, classification and properties; coagulation of blood; disorders-anticoagulants- blood groups, Blood volume , Plasma expanders-Buffer systems in blood. Biochemical tests and their importance in disease diagnosis.

1.5.2. Circulation: Physiology of heart, cardiac cycle- heartbeat ,heart sounds, electro-cardiograms, Work and efficiency of heart. Study of effect of ions on heart function-metabolism of cardiac muscle, nervous and chemical regulation of heart, effect of temperature and stress on heart, blood pressure and hypertension, arterial pulse ,Os motic regulation,  vasomotor regulation of circulation, shock. Coronary & pulmonary circulation, -Cerebrospinal fluid-circulation in birds, Blood-Brain barrier.

1.5.3 Respiration : Mechanism of respiration, Transport and exchange of gases, chemo receptors-hypoxia-respiration in birds,ne ural control of respiration.

1.5.4 Excretion: Structure and function of kidney,the formation of urine, various methods of studying renal function renal regulation of acid-base balance; Urinary recreation in chicken-Sweat glands and their function ,ph ysiological constituents of urine-renal failure-passive venous congestion-. Biochemical tests for urinary dysfunction.

1.5.5 Endocrine glands : Functional disorders, Study of their symptoms and diagnosis. Synthesis of hormones, mechanism and control of secretion-hormonal receptors and their classification and function.

1.6. General knowledge about pharmacology and therapeutics of drugs : Cellular level of pharma co dynamics and pharmaco-kinetics- electrolyte balance-drugs acting on Autonomic nervous system Drugs acting on fluids and -Modern concepts of anaesthesia and dissociative Anaesthetics- Antimicrobials ,Autocoids- and principles of chemotherapy in microbial injections-use of hormones in therapeutics, chemotherapy of Neoplastic diseases,chemotherapy of parasitic infections, Drug and economic persons in the Edible tissues of animals.

1.7. Veterinary Hygiene with reference to air,water and habitation : Assessment of pollution of water, air and soil-Importance of climate in animal health-effect of environment on animal function and performance-relationship between animal agriculture and industrialization -animal housing requirements for specific categories of domestic animals viz. , milking cows, pregnant cows & sowsbroiler birds-stress, strain & productivity in relation to animal habitation.

  1. Animal Diseases :

2.1 Pathogenesis and  symptoms, postmortem lesions, diagnosis, and control of infection diseases of pig, cattle and poultry, horses, sheep and goats.

2.2 Etiology and symptoms, diagnosis, treatment of production diseases of pig, cattle and poultry.

2.3 Deficiency diseases of domestic animals and birds.

2.4 Diagnosis and treatment of nonspecific condition like impaction, Indigestion,  Bloat, Diarrhoea, dehydration, stroke, poisoning.

2.5 Diagnosis and treatment of neurological disorders.

2.6 Principles and methods of immunization of animals against specific diseases: Concept of hard immunity, Identification of disease free zones-Concept of ‘zero’ disease ,chemoprophylaxis.

2.7 Anesthesia-local, regional and general-pre-anesthetic medication, Symptoms and surgical interference in fractures and dislocation, choking, Hernia, abomassal displacement-Caesarian operations, RumenotomyCastrations.

2.8 Disease investigation techniques-Materials for laboratory investigation-Establishment Animal Health Centres and Disease free zone.

  1. Veterinary Public Health

3.1 Zoonoses :Definition and Classification,  role of birds and animals  in prevalence and transmission of zoonotic diseases occupational zoonotic diseases.

3.2. Epidemiology : Definition and Principles of epidemiological terms, application of epidemiological measures in the field of  study of diseases and disease control, Epidemiological features of water,air and food borne infections.

3.3 Veterinary Jurisprudence : Rules  for  making improvement of animal quality and prevention of animal diseases, S.P. C.A. veterolegal cases, Rules for prevention of animal and animal product borne diseases, certificates-Materials and various methods of collection of samples for veterolegal investigation.

  1. Milk and Milk Products related Technology :

4.1 Milk Technology : Study of Organization of rural milk procurement, collection and transport of raw milk. Quality testing and grading of raw milk, Quality storage. Grades of, Skimmed milk, whole milk and cream. Processing, packaging, storing, , marketing ,distributing defects and their control and nutritive properties of the following milks : standardized,Pasteurized, toned, double toned, sterilized,  reconstituted, homogenized, recombined and flavoured milks. Preparation of cultured milks, cultures and their management, Lassi,youghurt, Dahi,  and Srikhand. Preparation of flavoured and sterlized milks. Legal standards, Sanitation requirement for safe and clean  milk and for the milk plant equipment.

4.2 Milk Products Technology : Selection of raw materials, production, assembling,  processing, storing, distributing and marketing milk products such as Butter, Ghee, Khoa, Channa, Cheese; Condensed, evaporated, baby food and dried milk, Ice cream and Kulfi; by products; whey products, butter milk, lactose and casein. Testing Grading, judging milk products- Agmark and BIS specifications, legal standards, quality control nutritive properties. , Processing, Packaging and operational control Costs.

  1. Meat Hygiene and Technology :

5.1 Meat Hygiene :

5.1.1 Ante mortem care and management of food animals, stunning ,slaughter, and dressing operations; abattoir requirements and designs; Meat inspection procedures and judgement of carcass meat cuts-drading of carcass meat cuts-functions and duties  of Veterinarians in Wholesome meat production.

5.1.2 Hygienic methods of handling production of meat:  Study of  spoilage of meat and control measures-Post slaughter physicochemical changes in meat and factors that influence them-quality improvement methods ,Adulteration of meat and defection,Existed regulatory provisions for  Meat trade and Industry.

5.2. Meat Technology

5.2.1 Chemical and Physical l characteristics of meat-meat emulsions-methods of preservation of meat-curing, canning, irradiation, meat packaging  and meat products; meat products and formulations.

5.3. Byproducts : Slaughter house by products and their utilisation, Inedible and Edible byproducts-social and economic implications of proper utilisation of slaughter house byproducts-Study of Organ products for food and pharmaceuticals.

5.4. Poultry Products Technology : Chemical composition and nutritive value of poultry meat,  Management and pre slaughter care. Techniques of Slaughtering, inspection, preservation of poultry meat, and products. Legal and BIS standards. Composition and Structure  and nutritive value of eggs. Preservation and maintenance. Microbial spoilage. Marketing of poultry eggs,meat,  and products.

5.5. Rabbit/Fur Animal farming : Care and management of rabbit meat production. Disposal and utilization of wool and fur  and recycling of waste byproducts. Grading of wool.

  1. Extension: Basic philosophy, concept, objectives and principles of extension. Different Methods for educating farmers under rural conditions. Generation of technology and its transfer and feedback. Problems of constraints in the transfer of technology. Animal husbandry programmes for the development of rural area.

UPSC IFS Syllabus 2018 for FORESTRY Optional


Section A

  1. Silviculture – General :

Principles of General Silvicultural : factors such as  ecological and physiological  influencing vegetation, natural and artificial regeneration of forests; methods of propagation, grafting techniques; site factors; nursery techniques and planting techniques-nursery beds, polybags and maintenance, grading, water budgeting and hardening of seedlings; establishment and tending, special approaches..

  1. Silviculture – systems :

Clear felling, coppice and conversion systems, uniform shelter wood selection. Management of silviculture systems of temperate, humid tropical ,subtropical, dry tropical and coastal tropical forests with special reference to plantation silviculture, choice of species, establishment and management of standards, , technical constraints, enrichment methods, intensive mechanized methods, aerial seeding thinning.

  1. Silviculture – Mangrove and Cold desert:

Mangrove: habitat and characteristics, mangrove, plantation-rehabilitation and establishment of degraded mangrove formations;  silvicultural systems for mangrove; protection of habitats against natural disasters. Cold desert – Characteristics, identification and management of species.

  1. Silviculture of trees:

Recent and Traditional advances in tropical silvicultural research and practices. Silviculture of some of the economically important species in India such as Acacia nilotica, Acacia catechu, Acacia auriculiformis, Albizzia lebbeck, Anthocephalus Cadamba ,Albizzia procera, , Anogeissus latifolia, Azadirachta indica, Bamboo spp, Butea monosperma, Cassia siamea, Cedrus deodara , Casuarina equisetifolia, , Chukrasia tabularis, Dipterocarpus spp ,Dalbergia sisoo,., Emblica officindils, Eucalyptus spp, Gmelina Arborea, Hardwickia binata, Populus spp, Largerstroemia Lanceolata, Pinus roxburghi, , Prosopis juliflora, Pterocarpus marsupium, , Santalum album, Semecarpus anacardium,. Shorea robusta, Salmalia malabaricum, Terminalis, Tectona grandis, tomemtosa, Tamarindus indica.

Section B

  1. Agroforestry, , Joint Forest Management, Social Forestry and Tribology :

Agroforestry – necessity and scope ; role in integrated land use, in the life of people and domestic animals and, planning especially related to (i) water and soil  conservation; (ii) water recharge; (iii) nutrient availability to crops; (iv) nature and ecosystem preservation which also includes  ecological balances through pest-predator relationships and (v) providing opportunities for enhancing medicinal ,bio-diversity  and other flora and fauna. Agro forestry systems under different agro-ecological zones; selection of species , role of NTFPs  and multipurpose trees , techniques, fodder and fuel security, food. Research and Extension needs. Urban and Social Forestry : objectives, scope and necessity; peoples participation.  JFM – principles, objectives, scope ,methodology, benefits and role of NGOs.  Tribology – tribal scene in India; tribes, concept of races, principles of social grouping, stages of tribal economy, education, customs, cultural tradition, ethos and participation in forestry programmes.

  1. Forest Soils, Soil Conservation and Watershed management :

Forests Soils and its classification, factors affecting soil formation; chemical ,physical, and biological properties. Soil conservation and its definition, various causes for erosion; types of erosion ; conservation and management of eroded soils or areas, wind breaks, shelter belts; sand dunes; reclamation of alkaline soils and saline soil , water logged and other waste lands.. Maintenance and build up of soil organic matter, Role of forests in conserving soils, provision of loppings for green leaf manuring; Role of microorganisms in ameliorating soils, forest leaf litter and composting; N and C cycles, VAM. Watershed Management  and its  concepts ; role of mini-forests and forest trees in overall resource management, watershed development in respect of torrent control, forest hydrology, river channel stabilization, avalanche and landslide controls, rehabilitation of degraded areas; hilly and mountain areas; watershed management and environmental functions of forests; ground water recharge and watershed management ,water-harvesting and conservation; role of integrating forest trees, horticultural crops, grass and fodders, field crops.

  1. Environmental Conservation and Biodiversity :

Environment and its components and importance, principles of conservation, forest fires and various human activities like mining, construction and developmental projects,  impact of deforestation;impact of population growth on environment.  Pollution – types, global warming, ozone layer depletion ,green house effects, acid rain, impact and control measures, concept of sustainable development, environmental monitoring;.

Role of trees and forests in environmental conservation; control and prevention of water, Sensing: air and noise pollution. Environmental policy and existing legislation in India. Environmental Impact Assessment. ecological and environmental protection vis-à-vis Economics assessment of watershed development.

  1. Tree Improvement and Seed Technology:

General concept of tree improvement, methods and techniques, variation and its use, provenance, seed source, quantitative aspects of forest tree improvement, exotics;  seed production and seed orchards, progeny tests, use of tree improvement in natural forest and stand improvement, , selection and breeding for resistance to diseases , genetic testing programming ,insects and adverse environment; forest genetic resources ,the genetic base, and gene conservation in-situ and ex-situ. Cost benefit ratio, economic evaluation.


Section A

  1. Forest Management and Management Systems:

Principles, Objective and techniques; stand structure and dynamics, sustained yield relation; normal forest, rotation, growing stock; regulation of yield; management of forest plantations, commercial forests, forest cover monitoring. Approaches viz., (i) site-specific planning, (ii) Approval, sanction and expenditure (iii) strategic planning (iv) Monitoring (v) Reporting and governance. Joint Forest Participatory Management, Details of steps involved such as formation of Village Forest Committees.

  1. Forest Working Plan:

Forest planning, evaluation and monitoring tools.Approaches for integrated planning; forest industries development and multipurpose development of forest resources; working plans and working schemes and their role in nature conservation, preparation and control, biodiversity and other dimensions. Annual Plan of Operations.Divisional Working Plan.

  1. Forest Mensuration anSensing:

Methods of measuring, height, volume, diameter, girth of trees; form-factor; volume estimation of stand, mean annual increment, current annual increment. Sampling methods and sample plots. Yield and stand tables, Yield calculation; forest cover monitoring through remote sensing; Geographic Information Systems for management and modelling.

  1. Surveying and Forest Engineering:

Forest surveying – different methods of surveying, maps and map reading. Basic principles of forest engineering. Roads and Bridges, Building materials and construction; General principles, objects, Ethnobotany: simple design and construction of timber bridges.

Section B

  1. ForestEthnobotany:

Forest ecology – Abiotic and biotic components, forest eco-systems; forest community concepts; ecological succession and climax, vegetation concepts, primary productivity, water relations and nutrient cycling; physiology in stress environments (drought, water logging salinity and alkalinity). Types of Forest in India, identification of species, association and composition; dendrology, taxonomic classification, principles and establishment of herbaria and arboreta. Clonal parks, Conservation of forest ecosystems.

Role of Ethnobotany in Indian Systems of Medicine; Ayurveda and Unani -Medicine Introduction, habitat, nomenclature, distribution and botanical features of medicinal and aromatic plants. Factors affecting action and toxicity of drug plants and chemical constituents of drug plants.

  1. Forest Resources and Utilization :

Environmentally sound forest harvesting practices; logging and extraction techniques and principles, storage and sale ,transportation system,Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFPs) definition and scope; gums,  oleoresins, resins, fibres, oil seeds nuts, rubber, bamboos, , canes ,medicinal plants, charcoal, lac and shellac, Katha and Bidi leaves, collection; processing and disposal.  Need and importance of wood seasoning and preservation; air and kiln seasoning ,general principles of seasoning, solar dehumidification, steam heated and electrical kilns. Composite wood;  adhesives manufacture, uses ,properties,  plywood manufacture-properties, uses, particle boards manufacture ,fibre boards-manufacture properties, uses; properties uses. Present status of composite wood industry in India and future expansion plans.  Pulp-paper and rayon; supply of raw material to industry, wood substitution, utilization of plantation wood and study of problems and possibilities. Anatomical structure of wood, abnormalities and defects  of wood, timber identification – general principles.

  1. Forest Protection & Wildlife Biology :

Losses to forest – abiotic and biotic, destructive agencies, insect-pests and disease, effects of air pollution on forests and forest die back. Susceptibility of forests to damage, nature and cause of damage,  prevention, protective measures and benefits due to biological and chemical control. General forest protection against fire, methods and equipment.Controlled use of fire, economic and environmental costs; timber salvage operations after natural disasters. Role of forest regeneration and afforestation in absorption of CO2. Rotational and controlled grazing, different methods of control against browsing and grazing animals; effect of wild animals on forest regeneration, human impacts; poaching,encroachment, grazing, live fencing, theft, shifting cultivation and control.

  1. Forest Economics and Legislation :

Forest economics and its fundamental principles, ; estimation of demand and supply , cost-benefit analyses; analysis of trends in the national and international market and changes in consumption and production patterns; assessment and projection of market structures; role of co-operatives and private sector ; role of corporate financing. Socio-economic analyses of forest productivity and attitudes; valuation of forest service and goods .  Legislation-History of forest development; Indian Forest Policy of 1894, 1990 and 1952. National Forest Policy, 1988 of People’s involvement, Involvement of women ,Joint Forest Management,; Forestry Policies and issues related to land use, timber and non-timber products, industrialization policies; sustainable forest management; institutional and structural changes. Decentralization and Forestry Public Administration. Forest laws and their necessity; general principles, Indian Forest Act 1927; Wildlife Protection Act 1972, Forest Conservation Act, 1980;  and their amendments; Application of Indian Penal Code to Forestry. Scope and objectives of Forest inventory.

To get detailed notification of UPSC , click here for PDF of UPSC IFS Syllabus given by official website.

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Dr. SS

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